# History and basic principles of electric motors

It’s incredible how many devices around
us today are powered by electric motors whether it’s a simple blender a vacuum
cleaner a fan or even a car or public transportation JAES in its catalog offers a wide range
of electric motors from different manufacturers the most common engines use internal
combustion to create heat this is not the case with electric motors electric
motors are powered by a completely different principle don’t you believe me
looking at this animation you can see a wire connected to a battery when the
electricity flows through this wire an electromagnetic field is created this
means that the electricity has temporarily turned the wire into a
magnet when the wire is disconnected from the battery it is not a magnet
anymore if we hook it up the opposite way it’s north and south pole reverse an
electric motor makes this process over and over using the magnetic force to
create mechanical motion now let’s take a step back to explain in detail the
basic elements of this process electric current simply is a flow of
electric charge which means moving electrons in a wire their motion is
caused by an electric potential difference between two points of a
conductor this difference allows the electrons to flow from the negative pole
to the positive pole a conductor is an object or type of material that allows
the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions like metals and
alloys a magnet is an object that produces a magnetic field each magnet
has a north and a South Pole inside a magnet there will always be a South in a
North Pole even dividing the magnet into two parts the remaining parts will have
a north and a South Pole a magnetic field is invisible but is
wrist ansible for the most notable property of
a magnet a force that pulls on other ferromagnetic materials such as iron and
attracts or repels other magnets many materials can be magnetized it seems
that Archimedes tried to magnetize the Syracuse and army weapons in order to
easily disarm the enemy’s electric motors require electricity for their
functioning but common plugs and sockets represent alternating currents an
electric current which periodically reverses direction batteries represent
direct current an electric current which flows only in one direction it’s hard to enumerate the long list of
inventors who tried to make practical the conversion of electrical energy into
mechanical energy in any case we can draw a timeline of the most significant
inventions for the development of today’s electric motors in 1800 for the
first time Italian Alessandro Volta produces a continuous electrical power
from a stack of silver and zinc plates in 1820
Hans Christian Oersted noticed that electric current is able to create
magnetic fields in 1821 michael faraday with his famous experiment shows the
continuous electromagnetic rotation is resulted by suspending a magnetic wire
in an electric field in 1825 William sturgeon invents the electromagnet a
coil of wires with an iron core to enhance the magnetic field in 1831
Joseph Henry builds a small magnetic rocker he describes it as a
philosophical toy in the same year french instrument maker
Hippolyte fixie builds what can be considered the first apparatus for
generating an alternating current out of a rotation in 1834 Italian physics
professor Giuseppe Domenico boto creates a device corresponding to a
metronome acting on the pendulum with two electromagnets
in the same year Moritz Herman Jacobi builds an electric motor able to lift a
weight of 10 to 12 pounds with a speed of 1 foot per second which is equivalent
to about 15 watts of mechanical power in 1842 Robert Davidson manages the
construction of the first electrically powered car its engines make about one
horsepower and reaches a speed of 4 miles per hour it’s in 1856 that Werner
Siemens built an electric generator with a TT armature winding he’s the first one
to place a winding in two slots this invention marks a turning point in the
design of electrical machines today almost all electrical motors are built
with windings and slots in 1885 galileo ferraris builds the first induction
motor in 1887 Frederick August hustle wander is the first one to come up with
the idea to use a three pass alternating voltage and current system in 1891
Michael de levo dobo Volsky builds the first three-phase cage induction motor
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## 6 thoughts on “History and basic principles of electric motors”

1. Sara Faustinelli says:

2. JAES Company says:

American speaker helped us

3. jaes jaes says:

Well done!

4. Marco Calabrese says:

This is what I was looking for

5. VERONICA ZAMPROGNO says:

Very useful thank you!

6. Desirée Carnieletto says: