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How Was The Telephone Invented? (Animated Video)

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How the Telephone Was Invented, the Inventors
& the Timelines The Telephone is an old device and one of
the most valuable patents from the olden days. Before technology got to its peak in the 21st
century, the Telephone was one of the earliest technologies used as a source of communication. The Telephone went through a series of modifications,
taking different forms and structures, which is why the invention of the Telephone cannot
just be credited to only one person, it is the collective work of various developers. The Telephone’s Little Beginning
In the beginning, mechanical devices that could be used to transmit words and music
over a long distance were in use. The first devices involved the transmission
of sound through physical media such as pipes. One such example was the acoustic “tin can
telephone” also known as the lovers’ phone. It worked by connecting two diaphragms with
a wire that would relay sound by sending mechanical vibrations from one end of the wire to the
other without making use of electric currents. It was made for children to play with by connecting
two paper cups, plastic bottles or metal cans. Between 1664 and 1685, British physicist Robert
Hooke continued to conduct experiments based on the tin can telephone. In 1667, he was credited for the development
of the acoustic string phone. In the 1700s, scientists in Europe studied
the use of telegraphs that employed electrostatic attraction but it was abandoned as being impractical. However in 1774, Georges-Louis Le Sage developed
an electric telegraph with a separate wire representing the 26 letters of the alphabet,
but with a range only between two rooms in his home. Up until the 1800s, the acoustic telephones
were still in use commercially, but as the telephone patents expired and many telephone
manufacturers began to compete, the acoustic telephone manufacturers closed down. In 1804, inventor and scientist Francisco
Salva researched the telegraphs, made improvements and created the electrochemical telegraph
based on electrical signals. In 1833, Carl Friedrich Gauss and Wilhelm
Eduard Weber built an electromagnetic device designed for the transmission of telegraphic
signals. This production was done at the University
of Gottingen in lower Saxony and became known as the electromagnetic telegraph. In 1844, Innocenzo Manzetti among others first
considered the idea of the telephone as we know it today. In 1854, there was a French engineer, Charles
Bourseul who proposed the first design of a make and break telephone. He explained that for a person to speak through
a movable disc with a vibration of the voice, the disc will alternately make and break the
current from a battery and another disc will be at a separation distance that will simultaneously
execute the same vibration. Bourseul said that in the distant future speech
would be transmitted through electricity. However, Bourseul was unable to build the
telephone. The Reis Telephone was invented in 1857 by
John Philip Reis. The transmitter was allegedly difficult to
operate because the relative position of the needle and contact were critical to the device’s
operation. However, it was considered a telephone since
it could transmit voice sound electrically over a distance but it was hardly used commercially
as a practical telephone. In 1854, Antonio Meucci invented an early
voice communicating device, he called it a telethon. Meucci claimed to have invented a paired electromagnetic
transmitter and receiver where the motion of the diaphragm modulated a signal in a coil
by moving an electronic magnet. He was credited with an invention of inductive
loading of telephone wires to increase distant signals in the 1880s as well as the invention
of an anti-sidetone circuit that maintained two separate telephone circuits and used twice
as many transmission wires. Meucci also claimed that his first attempt
to create a telephone occurred in Italy. Unfortunately, Meucci failed to develop his
invention commercially in America because of serious burns from an accident, lack of
English and poor business ability. Alexander Bell’s Contributions Alexander Graham Bell brought up an improved
idea because he had a good understanding of the nature of sound and music. This allowed him to perceive the possibility
of transmitting more than one message along the same wire at a time, a solution which
he called the “harmonic telegraph”. Towards the end of 1874, Bell’s experiment
had progressed so far that he was confident enough to announce the possibility of running
multiple telegraphs. Bell’s idea was backed by his future father
in law, Attorney Gardiner Green Hubbard who gave him all the necessary financing required
to work on his idea of developing the multiple telegraphs. Hubbard actually saw Bell’s idea as an opportunity
to break the monopoly ascertained by the Western Union Telegraph. Bell had an assistant, Thomas Watson a very
brilliant young electrician. They both had the idea to create a device
that could transmit the human voice electrically but Bell failed to tell Hubbard about this. They continued to work on the harmonic telegraph
with the insistence and support of the other financial backers including Hubbard. On June 1875, they built a device capable
of turning those tones into varying electric current and a receiver that would reproduce
the variation and turn them back into audible format. On May 10, 1876, Bell finally invented the
first practical telephone and was the founder of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company
in 1885. His thorough knowledge of sound and acoustic
had a major impact in the development of his telephone which gave him the edge over others
working on a similar project at that time and he received an award for the first U.S
patent for the invention of the Telephone that same year. Right before the invention of the Telephone,
the telegraph had been a successful communication system for at least 30years before Bell brought
about his inventive idea. The telegraph and the telephone were similar
as both could transmit sound through electrical cables but Bell’s attempt to improve the telegraph
led to his success with the Telephone. In 1836, Samuel Morse invented the Morse code. What made the Telephone more preferable than
the telegraph at the time of its creation was the fact that the telegraph used “the
Morse code,” that is a person could only send and receive messages one at a time, this was
a major problem with the use of the telegraph. In January 1878, the very first United States
telephone exchange was opened for commercial use in New Haven, Connecticut. In the late 1800s, the candlestick telephone,
a new and smaller version of the telephone was launched. The transmitter would be placed on a stand
which was shaped like a candlestick and when the phone was not in use the receiver would
hang on a hook with a switch known as a switch hook located in it. By 1900, there were nearly 600,000 phones
in Bell’s telephone system, the number rose to 2.2 million by 1905 and 5.8 million by
1910. At this time the US had become the world’s
leader in terms of telephone use. Toward the mid-1900s, the bell and induction
coil was enclosed at the bottom of the telephone which in turn resulted in the need for a separate
ringer box. And in years to come, the network that the
telephone used continued to grow bigger and more efficient. The rotary dial was introduced during this
time but was replaced by the Touch-Tone signaling in the 1960s. The Mobile Phones
Along the same timelines, in 1947, the hexagonal cell transmissions for mobile phones was proposed
by two engineers that worked for Bell Labs, Douglas H. Ring, and W. Rae Young. Unfortunately, the technology to support the
mobile phones remained undeveloped until 1960 when two other scientists working for the
same company, Richard H. Frenkiel, and Joel S. Engel built the electronics that would
support it. Today, the numbers of mobile phone users is
about 5 billion. The telephone has been a great instrument
to support modernization by supporting the development of suburbs and communication between
homes and businesses. Thank you very much for watching our videos. We’ll like to give you another interesting
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