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leyden jar | Story of electricity

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Early scientists thought that electricity
was like fluid such as water. In 1745, a dutch scientist, thought that as
electricity was like water, so, if we could store water, we could have
stored electricity too. The name of this scientist is pieter van musschenbroek. musschenbroek literally poured water into
a jar, and, a metal rod was inserted into the water
which was connected to the hauksbee generator. This is the device of musschenbroek called
leydan jar. As metal rod was connected to the hauksbee
generator, an electric flow was occured through metal. musschenbroek put the jar in a wooden table,
but he couldn’t find a way out to ensure the presence of electricity,
Until an accident occured. One day, musschenbroek , forgot to put the
leydan jar on the wooden table, and held the leydan jar at the bottom and touch the top
of the leyden jar with another. And a big shock dropped him to the ground. musschenbroek succeeded. Actually what happened, when musschenbroek
put the leydan jar at wooden table, the electricity which was already stored on the jar can’t
find a way out. But when, he touced bottom and top, electricity
found a way to unload. So, an electricity flowed through mushen brooke’s
body. That’s why he dropped down. Leydan jar became famous commercially at that
time. Infact, at present time. Do you know, what we call today this leydan
jar? A capacitor. Yes. A capacitor actually a leydan jar. Early scientists also thought that only, a
spark indicated the existence of electricity. But, by seeing torpedo fish they got puzzled. torpedo fish generates electricity same as
lryden jar, but there was no spark in it. In 1773, a british scientist, came with the
solution of this puzzle. His name is Henry Cavendish. He said that it was the same electricity existed
in torpedo fish like leyden jar.But the difference was the amount and intensity of electricity. At present, we call it electric charge, electric
potential. leydan jar got low charge but high potential
but, torpedo fish got high charge low potential. That’s why, torpedo fish didn’t create spark. Big potential difference is the actual cause
of spark. Interesting, isn’t it? In 1785, a french military engineer and scientist,
Charles-Augustin de coulomb set up a device named, torsion balance,
Here it is, A light arm consists of pithball named “m”
is suspended inside a glass case by means of a silver wire. the other side of light arm named “a” which
is attached to the inner side of glass. the upper end of the silver wire is fastened
to a brass top. where a circle is divided into degrees.it
can be turned round in the tube which supports it.and is known as the torsion head. there is a second pith ball named “n”. It is fixed to the vertical glass rod “b”. Round the glass case, a circle is drawn and
divided into degrees. So there are two scales in this machine,
first one is to the torsion head named “s1” and second one is to the glass case named
“s2”. Now let’s move to the working procedure, that
coulomb did, at first, the torsion head was moved clockwise
direction to touch “m” to “n”. in this position s1=s2=0 degree. Then, using torsion head, again detached the
m from n. Now, glass rod b is electrified so electricity
moved toward and electrified the pith ball n.
again, at s1=s2=0 degree position, the m and n pith balls were touched with
each other. This time repulsion occured,
and pith ball n moved opposite side far from it’s normal position in anti clock wise direction. So, the angle was created by pith ball n from
s1=0 degree to s2=36 degree. now, s1 was moved in clock wise direction
until the angle of s2=18 degree. To make s2=18 degree, s1 was needed to rotate
126 degree. So overall twist between upper and lower ends
of the wire of n pith ball was, 126+18=144. So, from here, Couloumb said that as distance
had become halved, from 36 to 18 the force had become 4 times of distance which
is 4 x 36=144. So Coloumb again said, “charges repels or
attract one another,with a force inversely proportion to the square of the distance and
proportion to the product of the charges.” Truly amazing experiment he did and,
proved his law, which we called at present couloumbs law. That’s all for today. See you in the next video.

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