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Lightning

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We are going to take a look at the video.
this video depicts lightning and thunder. Now in earlier days, it was believed that
lightning and thunder was the way that gods used to express their displeasure
at human beings. But now a scientific reason has been found out about why
lightning and thunder takes place. In the atmosphere, in between region to
region, there are variations in temperature and pressure. So due to
these variations, evapouration of water takes place from the seas, rivers, lakes,
ponds. So when this water evaporates, it forms water vapour and it reaches the
upper atmosphere. Over here, these water vapour droplets condense and form water
droplets and ice crystals. So when millions and millions of these
water droplets and ice crystals come together, they form clouds. And when these
water droplets and ice crystals are more in number, they form bigger clouds. These
clouds are usually known as thunder clouds. So when these clouds collide
against one another, because there are many clouds or when they rub against one
another, charges are produced on the clouds. We
have studied that whenever two bodies are rubbed against one another, charges are produced. In a similar manner
the clouds develop charges. So in case of a cloud, negative charges are concentrated in the bottom
and the positive charges are concentrated at the top. So there is a
huge accumulation of negative charges at the bottom of the cloud. Due to this, it induces a positive charge
on the surface of the earth. Now positive charge and negative charge will obviously
attract one another because unlike charges attract. And as a result an
electric discharge takes place, that is, from the cloud to the earth in the form
of electrons. These electrons rush from the cloud to the earth and it is this rush
that we see as lightning and we subsequently hear as thunder. Now lightning has many damaging effects. It
can be very risky. In this picture, you will notice that these tall buildings
that are churches, have been damaged by lightning. Now we saw in the previous case, that the
negative charge that accumulates at the bottom of the clouds induces a positive
charge on the earth. Now there are certain regions on the earth which are
elevated or slightly higher than other regions. These regions can include hills or
even tall buildings and structures like churches. So on these churches because
they are higher than the rest, the positive charge concentration is
more. And as a result we have a greater risk of getting damaged by lightning
than other objects that are not so high up. So in order to prevent the damaging effects of
lightning, a scientist Benjamin Franklin, came up with a very good idea. This good
idea was that of a lightning rod. this lightning rod was invented by this
scientist whose name is Benjamin Franklin. Now Benjamin Franklin performed certain experiments to actually
show that lightning is nothing but a discharge of electricity. Earlier in the
days of Benjamin Franklin, people did not think that lightning and electricity
were one and the same. But it was Benjamin Franklin who proved that
lightning was nothing but a discharge of electrons. His famous experiment that
was the kite flying experiment, was the experiment with which he proved that
lightning actually consists of nothing but electrons. And it was after this that
Benjamin Franklin concluded that lightning can have several damaging
effects. So in order to remove the damaging effects of lightning, Benjamin
Franklin invented the lightening rod. So let us find out how the lightning rod
helps in mitigating the effects of lightning. Usually what happens is lightning rods
are installed on top of buildings. When lightning rods are installed on the top of
buildings, it actually prevents the building from
getting damaged by lightning. How this happens? We will soon find out. So consider this picture. In this picture
will find that a lightning rod has been installed on the top of this church. This is the lightning rod that is being shown in
green. Now what is happening is since tall objects have a greater tendency to
accumulate positive charges as we just discussed, this lightning rod will accumulate a lot
of positive charges on it. Now we have studied that unlike charges
attract one another. So the negative charge that is forming on the cloud will
be attracted by the positive charges on this lightning rod. Now you will say that
even earlier there was a cross on the church on which positive judges were
getting accumulated. So what is the special thing about a lightning rod? Well this lightning rod is connected by
a wire and this wire goes down into the ground as you can see. And we have also
studied that the earth is a huge sink for charges. So when lightning hits the
lightning rod over here, because there is an accumulation of positive charges, electrons hit the lightning rod and are
conducted via this wire and go down into the ground. And thus the building is
protected. So in this animation, you will find that
the buildings are not using any lightning rod. And when lightning strikes
it is actually damaging the building as well as the tree. You can see the
positive charges are accumulated all over the place; on the surface of the
earth and also on the top of these buildings. And since no lightning rod is
being used, the damaging effects of lightning cannot be prevented. The house
is getting burned due to lightning and so is the tree. But now considered a scenario, where this
house is actually using a lightning rod. So there is an accumulation of
positive charges on the lightning rod. So when there is an accumulation of positive
charges on the lightning rod, this lightning rod attracts the electrons at
the bottom part of the cloud towards itself. As a result, lightning is
discharged at this point and it flows down through the wire into the ground. Because
the earth is a huge sink for the charges. As a result, what happens is, even
buildings and other objects in near vicinity of this building are prevented
from the damaging effects. This happens because the lightning rod is being used
and the damaging effects of lightning are actually mitigated. Lightning does not
cause any damage in this case where the lightning rod is used. Well the lightning rod is actually
directly dependent on the fact that the earth is a huge sink for all charges. It is because the earth is a huge sink,
that the lightning rod after intercepting the lightning is able to
transfer the electrons from itself via the wire connected into the earth or
ground. So as all the charges are safely
transferred to the earth the lightning rod helps prevent damage caused due to
lightning.

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32 thoughts on “Lightning”

  1. abhishek soni says:

    Very nice brother kha Se ho ?

  2. zelalem Tenaw says:

    Great Job!! Well explained.

  3. archana gharge says:

    Pls once explain thunderstorm

  4. archana gharge says:

    U explained really very good sir

  5. Govind Singh says:

    When current riches the earth where it goes

  6. Navneet Goel says:

    Nice explanation

  7. Misha aliya varghese says:

    Well explained πŸ‘πŸ‘πŸ‘ŒπŸ‘ŒπŸ‘πŸ‘πŸ‘

  8. Koushik Ghosh says:

    150feet height cell tower how much area safe near the tower

  9. Kavitha KP says:

    Thanks sir

  10. Jitendra Kumar says:

    o angrag hindi mai bol

  11. Karthik Nagari says:

    Great

  12. Anas Saifi says:

    This channel deserves more subscribers πŸ˜”

  13. teja's world says:

    Earth is neutral object.u have showed that it has poistive charge…

  14. karnati chandana says:

    good explanation..can you please explain electrical engineering subjects..

  15. Sharvan Kumar says:

    Delta step is boon for us.

  16. Laxmi Prasad says:

    Nice explain, but sir what should be the size (cross sectional area) of down conductor and air termination rod

  17. Essar Bhat says:

    its mesmerising πŸ˜€πŸ˜€ very easily explained……simplyπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒ

  18. Desi is the best says:

    this website deserves more subscribers
    at least 300k

  19. kavitha p says:

    Awesome explaination sir . But i have one doubt for u if earth is hav ing +ve charge then y it is not attracting _ve charges present on earth and y does lighting take place rarely y not always

  20. ab mirani9736 says:

    Your explanation helped me very much tq

  21. labaik ya Mehdi says:

    Thanks.

  22. Amandeep Chawla says:

    I think u are giving Γ  prΓ©sentation. Beautifully explained

  23. SUBASH VN says:

    I am Physics teacher, working in Dubai. I am recommending to all my students, friends about DELTA STEP. You are doing a great Job. Regarding Physics kindly create videos for IGCSE also and add more videos

  24. Vinay Gope says:

    Plz help frndz… I have a confusion..
    1)Why are positive charge accumulate at the top of the clouds and negative charge at the bottom of the cloud?
    2)charge always flow from positive to negative…. Then why discharge between cloud and the earth occurs in opposite manners

  25. Rajesh Choudhary says:

    Why does negative charge accumulated in the bottom of the cloud and positive charge accumulated in the upper part of the cloud.

  26. Peacefully Lyngdoh Peacefully Lyngdoh says:

    If ground earring and lighting earting connect to gether what it happen

  27. Baba Lois says:

    So clear,Good Job mdogo wangu

  28. samir baali cherif says:

    thank you my friend i enjoy all your physics topics well explained

  29. Rajarshi Roy Gosthipaty says:

    You told that when two materials are rubbed with each other , charges are formed . Here water in the form of solid or any other form is acumulated in cloud. How rubbing of similar ( physically may not be but chemically) material can form static electric ?

  30. Denali Jaggi says:

    great video! all concepts explained beautifully

  31. Arif Mehmmood says:

    Sir what wire will be use for earth wiring insulated wire aur uninsulated wire

  32. Bhagyasri Buddha says:

    Your explanation is good and do more videos πŸ‘πŸ‘πŸ‘πŸ‘

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