Principle and Working of Cyclotron


Cyclotron is a device developed by E.O. Lawrence
and M.S. Livingstone in 1934 It is used to accelerate charged particles like protons and deuterons This results in the production of high
energy charged particle. In nuclear physics such energized particles are used to
bombard nuclei causing nuclear reactions. A positively charged particle can be
accelerated to high energy with the help of an oscillating electric field, by making it cross the same electric field time and again with the use of a strong magnetic field. Two hollow half cylinders made of high conductive metals known as dees are so placed, that the straight edge will be face-to-face with a small gap between them. Now these two Dees are connected to two terminals of an alternating voltage source an oscillator It would help in changing polarity. If one D1 is in the positive potential than D2 will be in exact opposite
negative potential at same time. In this way they would be oscillating and an electric field would be created between them. One electromagnet is kept below the two Dees and one E.M is kept above the Dees. Bottom E.M will have north pole above and top E.M will have south pole below. This would create a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of the electric field. This entire arrangement is sealed in a vacuum box. The two Dees create an electric field . The direction of Electric field is horizontal. The direction of magnetic field vertical. When we place a positively charged particle which may be a proton or a combination of proton and neutron both. Since D1 is positive D2 is negative there is an electric field between them. A force acts upon the charged particle and its direction would be the direction of E. Because of this force the charged
particle gets acceleration and because of acceleration the speed increases till it enters the D. Since D is an enclosed container and so the value of electric field is zero. So force becomes zero and acceleration becomes zero. So inside the container there is no electric field But there is magnetic field and its direction is north. The charged particle now moves perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. It experiences a force in a direction perpendicular to the plane containing V and B. This force provides the centripetal force and makes the charged particle move
along a circular path of radius r=mv/qB The particle makes a semi circle and comes to the gap the time taken is t/2 If the time taken to complete one circle is T T then the time taken to complete
semi circle would be T/2 As soon the pareticle comes to end it is influenced by electric field When the particle was born its velocity was Zero when it enters the Dee its velocity is v and it is constant because the magnetic field cannot change the velocity. The oscillator will change the polarity. When it comes out of Dee it again comes
under the influence of electric field. The electric field accelerates the charged particle to v1. When it enters D2 the velocity would remain constant Now D2 becomes + and D1 becomes – When it comes out of Dee it again comes
under the influence of electric field. The electric field accelerates the charged particle. The particle would now move from D2 to D1 because its velocity would increase to v2 When it enters D1 again the velocity would remain constant because the magnetic field cannot
change the velocity but the particle would make a greater semi circle because it is coming inside the Dee with a greater velocity When it comes out of Dee it comes
under the influence of electric field. Once again the electric field accelerates
the charged particle. and now the velocity becomes v3. In this way the particle moves in a circular path and with each circle the velocity of the
charged particle increases If the velocity of a charged particle increases the radius of the charged particle would also increase. Finally when the particle has
no more space to grow in radius. It is thrown out through a window. With such a high velocity the particle has high energy and it hits the target.

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100 thoughts on “Principle and Working of Cyclotron”

  1. Mercy Abraham says:

    Good, nice explanation

  2. Rutuja Manukar says:

    Best video

  3. jasjot Singh says:

    Thanks a lot .
    It was really helpful

  4. Subhash Babar says:

    Great job very good explanation helped me a lot in boards thx alot

  5. xXFAHIMXx says:

    After all that IT HITS THE TARGET ?
    I mean what kind of target ?
    Can't we just use a pistol or something ?

  6. Vishal Nagar says:

    Keep such types

  7. Aj Sahu says:


  8. Aiame Sangma says:

    I hope I can write this explanation tomorrow for my board examπŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚but onlyvif cyclotron topic comesπŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚πŸ˜‚

  9. Yash Aggarwal says:


  10. Sayantani Guha says:

    You should have said that magnetic field cannot change the speed

  11. subhradeep chakraborty says:

    Excellent useful for exam

  12. Samuel talk says:

    Thank you sir

  13. PURBASA DAS says:

    Very clear explanation..thank u

  14. dhritishri dewanita medhi says:

    What is mean by resonance acceleration in cyclotron? Need nsr plz

  15. Hajar Hajar says:

    thank you so much sir you explained every detail of this operation in a few minute and in an easy way , although I am studying in france I understood everything

  16. SAnaUllah Yousafzai says:

    3:24 "The electric field inside the container is zero"
    4:24 "It (Charged particle) is influenced by an electric field" …….?????

  17. neet 2020 says:

    Wonderful explanation plz make more videos on class 12 physics

  18. ARSHA RAVI says:

    Really great sir…best video of cyclotron for studying

  19. Khadidja Benn says:

    very great explanation 😍😍

  20. Aditya Raj says:

    Great explanation!πŸ™Œ

  21. No No says:

    Nice animation

  22. JAYESH SINGH says:

    Very greatful !

  23. Jimbob Sherwood says:

    Wow, Alex Jones was right! They must be opening a portal to hell at CERN.

  24. Sayan roy chowdhury says:

    Thank you Sir for sharing your knowledge

  25. AKHIL KRABAS says:

    Very well

  26. AMRUTA KUNJIR says:

    Thanks a lot

  27. iDudeX says:

    Explanation, detail and everything else is very good except the voice. It's completely emotionless. Constructive criticism here, increase the amount of energy in you voice πŸ™‚

  28. PIYUSH BHOI says:

    Sir please make a video on beta tron

  29. PIYUSH BHOI says:

    Sir please make a video on beta tron

  30. Ethan Krauss says:

    Fantastic video about how a particle accelerator works!! Thank you!!

    In case people are interested, if anyone clicks on the purple channel icon to the left, they can see a device fly by accelerating particles downwards without any mechanical moving parts. It also carries its power supply which is really what makes it novel. Perhaps a more advanced version could just accelerate electrons.

  31. Lazy Girl says:

    How the velocity is increased?
    or why v2>v1?

  32. Physics with Prince khapra says:

    Sir, by which software you made such videos

  33. navdeep kamra says:

    Best explanation ever…keep mqking such videos

  34. iqra saeed says:

    Great sir thankyou

  35. lal Jose says:

    I loved this animation

  36. ab c says:

    one of the best explaination on the topic #A1…Thanks alot

  37. Vektor says:

    Good job on the animation

  38. Ekta Ojha says:

    Incredibly elucidated…thank you


    Animations Are good

  40. Ganji Naveen says:

    Superb explaintion

  41. Hiren Rajgor says:

    Very nice πŸ€—πŸ€—

  42. Gabriel Akser says:

    Thanks alote

  43. Prateek Dubey says:

    amazing…..i just loved it …what a nice explanation

  44. Mohan Sundar says:

    But how they get that particles it is not available in shops right

  45. CHAN says:

    Wonderful explanation!!πŸ’πŸ‘Œ

  46. Shruti Vig says:

    Wonderful explanation sir … It makes everything visualised so keenly … Tnku so much sir ! Keep uploading such visualistic videos …

  47. Chaitanya Sharma says:

    Brilliant sir

  48. rinke Pandey says:

    Thanks sir for making this video really very helpful

  49. A To Z Mishra says:

    Thanks a lot

  50. Yaqoob Khan says:

    very useful video

  51. akram nazir says:

    Thank you was well explained and was very helpful

  52. Sonam Yadav says:

    Very nice

  53. Sonam Yadav says:

    Very nice

  54. Ritik Shankar says:

    Superb videoπŸ‘ŒπŸ‘ŒπŸ‘ŒπŸ‘Œ

  55. Avi Singh says:

    Thanx yrr

  56. Pooja Chauhan says:

    Nice explanation . I got clear idea through daigramatic view .

  57. CETX Tube says:

    where i can buy it

  58. sanjeev sharma says:

    sir hum ik tarike se isme neutrone ko add nhi kr sakhte

  59. Ashish Chauhan says:

    Thankuuu sir

  60. Mid night says:

    Nice explanation

  61. simarjeet kaur says:

    well done sir

  62. Sheetal Kubasad says:

    Thanks sir best video

  63. Jaat America says:

    Sir physics ke sabhi topic ke liye video bna dijyie

  64. Gyanendra armeti says:

    Awesome explanation sir best teacher

  65. Ranju Tiwari says:

    Sir pls translate it in Hindi

  66. Himanshu Sharma says:

    nice πŸ˜‚

  67. Ramniwas khatak says:

    Air dalo

  68. shrey sutariya says:

    Great visualisation

  69. Zaeem Atif says:

    thanko jii.
    LOVE U Jii!!

  70. naveen kumar says:

    Best video thank so much for such important video 😊😊😊

  71. Harsh Kadian says:

    Killer visualisation

  72. Raghav Bali says:

    Awesome video

  73. Raghav Bali says:

    Awesome video

  74. Shri Shri Kajan Lakhan says:

    Cyclotron: @4:00
    Can we improve this?
    We have two circles of different radius therefore,
    t and t/2 ,
    should be t-spiral constant/2

  75. ghanshyam jangid says:

    Confuse kar diya sir… animation is good

  76. Pankaj yadav says:

    The video was amazing

  77. pritesh shah says:

    Nice explanation

  78. TIME over says:


  79. Raj Atulya says:

    concept got cleared in just 6 minutes 44 second thanks a lot sir

  80. Pedro Gomes says:


  81. Pooja Kumari says:

    Sir bhot hi jyada accha samjhate ho superrrrrrr

  82. PaRvatHy says:

    Thk u thk u thku very much

  83. vanya vardhan singh VVS says:

    Sir your language is so simple and effective ek no. Video

  84. Poonam Bisht says:

    What is application of cyclotron

  85. MANJUNATHA B says:

    Awesome sirrβ˜»πŸ‘Œ

  86. Sapna Pandey says:

    What a wonderful explanation πŸ‘Œ very much helpful

  87. hellboy _____ says:

    Can anyone please explain me how this works on neutron, since neutron is a chargeless particle and so electrostatic force won't act on it.

  88. Somvir Singh says:

    Very nice explanation sir. Thank u

  89. Manju Nokhwal star says:

    Sir please explain in hindi

  90. Gangsters buddy says:

    If velocity doesn't change then it doesn't change the radius..? Then ye ek hi circular path Mai move krega πŸ€”

  91. Ahalya says:

    Thank you for this great explanation.

  92. Mahima Arne says:

    6:11 Your Demonstration is wrong
    The Time Period Of Particle to complete the Circle is not change. Whenever the speed is Rising.
    Please Make A another video after Studying about concepts.

  93. Yasin editz says:

    Nice explanation sir I understood that.. πŸ‘πŸ‘

  94. Priyansh Vyas says:

    Be accurate, speed cannot be changed , velocity can be.

  95. Sheker K says:

    Very good explanation…

  96. Saroj Bagga says:

    Thank you sir ….very helpful..😊

  97. Ranjit Saini says:

    Sir osm kya samjhaya h osm yr osm ji ek dm fabulas sir

  98. Ankana Ghosh says:

    Awesome explanation..tmrw is my exam

  99. Aman Raj says:


  100. Vedant Suryawanshi says:

    Thanks a lot sir for your valuable explanation.Your animated video cleared my concept.Once again Thank you .πŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒπŸ˜ƒ

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