# Principle and Working of Cyclotron

Cyclotron is a device developed by E.O. Lawrence
and M.S. Livingstone in 1934 It is used to accelerate charged particles like protons and deuterons This results in the production of high
energy charged particle. In nuclear physics such energized particles are used to
bombard nuclei causing nuclear reactions. A positively charged particle can be
accelerated to high energy with the help of an oscillating electric field, by making it cross the same electric field time and again with the use of a strong magnetic field. Two hollow half cylinders made of high conductive metals known as dees are so placed, that the straight edge will be face-to-face with a small gap between them. Now these two Dees are connected to two terminals of an alternating voltage source an oscillator It would help in changing polarity. If one D1 is in the positive potential than D2 will be in exact opposite
negative potential at same time. In this way they would be oscillating and an electric field would be created between them. One electromagnet is kept below the two Dees and one E.M is kept above the Dees. Bottom E.M will have north pole above and top E.M will have south pole below. This would create a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of the electric field. This entire arrangement is sealed in a vacuum box. The two Dees create an electric field . The direction of Electric field is horizontal. The direction of magnetic field vertical. When we place a positively charged particle which may be a proton or a combination of proton and neutron both. Since D1 is positive D2 is negative there is an electric field between them. A force acts upon the charged particle and its direction would be the direction of E. Because of this force the charged
particle gets acceleration and because of acceleration the speed increases till it enters the D. Since D is an enclosed container and so the value of electric field is zero. So force becomes zero and acceleration becomes zero. So inside the container there is no electric field But there is magnetic field and its direction is north. The charged particle now moves perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. It experiences a force in a direction perpendicular to the plane containing V and B. This force provides the centripetal force and makes the charged particle move
along a circular path of radius r=mv/qB The particle makes a semi circle and comes to the gap the time taken is t/2 If the time taken to complete one circle is T T then the time taken to complete
semi circle would be T/2 As soon the pareticle comes to end it is influenced by electric field When the particle was born its velocity was Zero when it enters the Dee its velocity is v and it is constant because the magnetic field cannot change the velocity. The oscillator will change the polarity. When it comes out of Dee it again comes
under the influence of electric field. The electric field accelerates the charged particle to v1. When it enters D2 the velocity would remain constant Now D2 becomes + and D1 becomes – When it comes out of Dee it again comes
under the influence of electric field. The electric field accelerates the charged particle. The particle would now move from D2 to D1 because its velocity would increase to v2 When it enters D1 again the velocity would remain constant because the magnetic field cannot
change the velocity but the particle would make a greater semi circle because it is coming inside the Dee with a greater velocity When it comes out of Dee it comes
under the influence of electric field. Once again the electric field accelerates
the charged particle. and now the velocity becomes v3. In this way the particle moves in a circular path and with each circle the velocity of the
charged particle increases If the velocity of a charged particle increases the radius of the charged particle would also increase. Finally when the particle has
no more space to grow in radius. It is thrown out through a window. With such a high velocity the particle has high energy and it hits the target.

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## 100 thoughts on “Principle and Working of Cyclotron”

1. Mercy Abraham says:

Good, nice explanation

2. Rutuja Manukar says:

Best video

3. jasjot Singh says:

Thanks a lot .

4. Subhash Babar says:

Great job very good explanation helped me a lot in boards thx alot

5. xXFAHIMXx says:

After all that IT HITS THE TARGET ?
I mean what kind of target ?
Can't we just use a pistol or something ?
NOT BEING SaRcAsTiC

6. Vishal Nagar says:

Keep such types

7. Aj Sahu says:

Nice..

8. Aiame Sangma says:

I hope I can write this explanation tomorrow for my board exam😂😂but onlyvif cyclotron topic comes😂😂😂

9. Yash Aggarwal says:

Wonderfulll….

10. Sayantani Guha says:

4:40
You should have said that magnetic field cannot change the speed

Excellent useful for exam

12. Samuel talk says:

Thank you sir

13. PURBASA DAS says:

Very clear explanation..thank u

14. dhritishri dewanita medhi says:

What is mean by resonance acceleration in cyclotron? Need nsr plz

15. Hajar Hajar says:

thank you so much sir you explained every detail of this operation in a few minute and in an easy way , although I am studying in france I understood everything

16. SAnaUllah Yousafzai says:

3:24 "The electric field inside the container is zero"
4:24 "It (Charged particle) is influenced by an electric field" …….?????

17. neet 2020 says:

Wonderful explanation plz make more videos on class 12 physics

18. ARSHA RAVI says:

Really great sir…best video of cyclotron for studying

very great explanation 😍😍

Great explanation!🙌

21. No No says:

Nice animation

22. JAYESH SINGH says:

Very greatful !

23. Jimbob Sherwood says:

Wow, Alex Jones was right! They must be opening a portal to hell at CERN.

24. Sayan roy chowdhury says:

Thank you Sir for sharing your knowledge

25. AKHIL KRABAS says:

Very well

26. AMRUTA KUNJIR says:

Thanks a lot

27. iDudeX says:

Explanation, detail and everything else is very good except the voice. It's completely emotionless. Constructive criticism here, increase the amount of energy in you voice 🙂

28. PIYUSH BHOI says:

Sir please make a video on beta tron

29. PIYUSH BHOI says:

Sir please make a video on beta tron

30. Ethan Krauss says:

Fantastic video about how a particle accelerator works!! Thank you!!

In case people are interested, if anyone clicks on the purple channel icon to the left, they can see a device fly by accelerating particles downwards without any mechanical moving parts. It also carries its power supply which is really what makes it novel. Perhaps a more advanced version could just accelerate electrons.

31. Lazy Girl says:

How the velocity is increased?
or why v2>v1?

32. Physics with Prince khapra says:

Sir, by which software you made such videos

33. navdeep kamra says:

Best explanation ever…keep mqking such videos

34. iqra saeed says:

Great sir thankyou

35. lal Jose says:

I loved this animation

36. ab c says:

one of the best explaination on the topic #A1…Thanks alot

37. Vektor says:

Good job on the animation

38. Ekta Ojha says:

Incredibly elucidated…thank you

39. SHAURYA SHARMA JI says:

Animations Are good

40. Ganji Naveen says:

Superb explaintion

41. Hiren Rajgor says:

Very nice 🤗🤗

42. Gabriel Akser says:

Thanks alote

43. Prateek Dubey says:

amazing…..i just loved it …what a nice explanation

44. Mohan Sundar says:

But how they get that particles it is not available in shops right

45. CHAN says:

Wonderful explanation!!💐👌

46. Shruti Vig says:

Wonderful explanation sir … It makes everything visualised so keenly … Tnku so much sir ! Keep uploading such visualistic videos …

47. Chaitanya Sharma says:

Brilliant sir

48. rinke Pandey says:

Thanks sir for making this video really very helpful

49. A To Z Mishra says:

Thanks a lot

50. Yaqoob Khan says:

very useful video

51. akram nazir says:

Thank you sir.it was well explained and was very helpful

Very nice

Very nice

54. Ritik Shankar says:

Superb video👌👌👌👌

55. Avi Singh says:

Thanx yrr

56. Pooja Chauhan says:

Nice explanation . I got clear idea through daigramatic view .

57. CETX Tube says:

58. sanjeev sharma says:

sir hum ik tarike se isme neutrone ko add nhi kr sakhte

59. Ashish Chauhan says:

Thankuuu sir

60. Mid night says:

Nice explanation

61. simarjeet kaur says:

well done sir

Thanks sir best video

63. Jaat America says:

Sir physics ke sabhi topic ke liye video bna dijyie

64. Gyanendra armeti says:

Awesome explanation sir best teacher

65. Ranju Tiwari says:

Sir pls translate it in Hindi

66. Himanshu Sharma says:

nice 😂

67. Ramniwas khatak says:

Air dalo

68. shrey sutariya says:

Great visualisation

69. Zaeem Atif says:

thanko jii.
LOVE U Jii!!

70. naveen kumar says:

Best video thank so much for such important video 😊😊😊

Killer visualisation

72. Raghav Bali says:

Awesome video

73. Raghav Bali says:

Awesome video

74. Shri Shri Kajan Lakhan says:

Cyclotron: @4:00
Can we improve this?
We have two circles of different radius therefore,
t and t/2 ,
should be t-spiral constant/2

75. ghanshyam jangid says:

Confuse kar diya sir… animation is good

The video was amazing

77. pritesh shah says:

Nice explanation

78. TIME over says:

thanks

79. Raj Atulya says:

concept got cleared in just 6 minutes 44 second thanks a lot sir

80. Pedro Gomes says:

Amazing!!!

81. Pooja Kumari says:

Sir bhot hi jyada accha samjhate ho superrrrrrr

82. PaRvatHy says:

Thk u thk u thku very much

83. vanya vardhan singh VVS says:

Sir your language is so simple and effective ek no. Video

84. Poonam Bisht says:

What is application of cyclotron

85. MANJUNATHA B says:

Awesome sirr☻👌

86. Sapna Pandey says:

What a wonderful explanation 👌 very much helpful

87. hellboy _____ says:

Can anyone please explain me how this works on neutron, since neutron is a chargeless particle and so electrostatic force won't act on it.

88. Somvir Singh says:

Very nice explanation sir. Thank u

89. Manju Nokhwal star says:

90. Gangsters buddy says:

If velocity doesn't change then it doesn't change the radius..? Then ye ek hi circular path Mai move krega 🤔

91. Ahalya says:

Thank you for this great explanation.

92. Mahima Arne says:

The Time Period Of Particle to complete the Circle is not change. Whenever the speed is Rising.

93. Yasin editz says:

Nice explanation sir I understood that.. 👏👏

94. Priyansh Vyas says:

Be accurate, speed cannot be changed , velocity can be.

95. Sheker K says:

Very good explanation…

96. Saroj Bagga says:

97. Ranjit Saini says:

Sir osm kya samjhaya h osm yr osm ji ek dm fabulas sir

98. Ankana Ghosh says:

Awesome explanation..tmrw is my exam

99. Aman Raj says:

Chamarba

100. Vedant Suryawanshi says:

Thanks a lot sir for your valuable explanation.Your animated video cleared my concept.Once again Thank you .😃😃😃😃